By Jay Cook |RED BANK – How does an institution turn 125 years old and still keep a fresh, youthful nod to its tradition? Ask the Red Bank Elks Lodge #233.Later this month, the 540 members who make up the Red Bank lodge will celebrate a vibrant century-and-a-quarter-long history in the heart of Red Bank, highlighted by countless charitable efforts and a steady drive to assist those in need.“No one member is greater than the lodge and no lodge is greater than the order,” said Shean R. Opie, the lodge’s exalted ruler for 2017-2018. “We all come together for that common goal, and that’s community awareness.”Opie, an active recruiter of any and all members who qualify as an Elk, said he sees a trend shifting to younger members joining the ranks. Although the average national member age is 67, he said, Lodge #233 seems to be inducting younger members each year. Just in 2017, he said the average age of three new membership classes was 35 years old.In fact, Opie, a 32-year-old full-time EMT and Middletown resident, is the youngest exalted ruler in the Red Bank lodge’s history. After discovering three generations of Elks came before him, he decided to join as a 21-year-old.“There’s no one that’s here that started this (lodge),” said Justin Holder, a 31-year-old Red Bank resident and two-year member of Lodge #233. “How this organization continues, how it survives, is helped by this crowd here.”Opie and Holder agreed the attraction rests with a few different ideals: an atmosphere for younger adults to be part of a family, as well as a welcoming attitude from existing members who want to see the Elks continue to grow.“It’s about appealing to that group, appealing to that organization, to keep this heartbeat going,” Holder continued.Throughout their history, the Red Bank Elks have witnessed 22 U.S. presidents come through the Oval Office, seen six major U.S. military conflicts and watched Red Bank grow from a riverside community into one of the most diverse towns in New Jersey.Lodge #233 is inconspicuously nestled in beside Riverside Gardens Park at 40 West Front St. with a prime piece of riverfront real estate to watch a setting sun over the Navesink. But it hasn’t been their home forever.Ruler Sean R. Opie holds a handwritten, dusty ledger used by Lodge #233 members in the 1920s. The Lodge turns 125 years old in 2018.According to a lodge history compiled in 2000 by Elk member Bob Cramer, the Red Bank Elks have had five homes, some more brief than others, in the borough. From their inception until 1913, they conducted meetings on the third floor of 32 Broad St., formerly called the M.M. Davidsons Building, now a Chase Bank branch location.In 1913, the Red Bank Elks found their “first real home” at 52 East Front St. when they bought the Samuel T. Hendrickson House, found just east of the Globe Hotel.According to the Elks, high member demand and outgrowing facilities led to Lodge #233 buying a piece of land and constructing their own building at 365 Broad St., which now is a professional building across the street from the Red Bank Foodtown. If you look closely enough at the top of the building, the words “Red Bank Lodge B.P.O.E. No. 233” are inscribed, just beneath a carved clock set at 11 p.m., the time Elks dedicate each night to their past members.The Great Depression and high overhead costs forced the Elks to lease the property to the USO, and eventually sell it, the document said.For a short time, the Elks conducted business by renting space from a fellow member at 7 Broad St. before building and opening in its current location on West Front Street in 1955.Despite the many homes, the Elks’ service to Red Bank has never wavered, said Rose Broccoli, the first female exalted ruler in Lodge #233’s history.“People know what we do here – I feel that in my heart,” said Broccoli, who served from 2005 to 2006. “When we ask (the community) to do something for us, they’re there. Conversely, we’re there too.”Over the past calendar year, Opie said Lodge #233 has done its part to give back to those in need. On Black Friday when Red Bank RiverCenter held its town lighting, the Elks set up a shake-a-can just outside their front door. That six-hour effort yielded $1,700 donated to local homeless veterans. Last year’s Charity Ball, an effort to fundraise for a general charity account, raised around $10,000, Opie said. Around the holidays, the lodge wrapped about 700 toys in an effort to throw a Christmas party for 80 special needs children in the immediate area. And in the aftermath of Hurricane Harvey, along with other Monmouth County lodges, they helped gather donations and drive four mid-sized U-Haul trucks to Kearny, Texas for relief efforts.Since fundraising is one of the core pillars of Elkdom, Lodge #233 will continue to explore new avenues to raise money for those in need. Just this past weekend, motorcycle committee activities manager Chemayne Myers held the first “Battle of the Bands” in lodge history. She said the effort brought about 200 people into the lodge, many for the first time, and raised $3,000 for homeless veterans.“By opening up the doors it allowed a lot more people to come in within that (younger) age range and become aware of the Elks Lodge,” she said.In the long run, it’s one of the many ways Lodge #233 can stay in Red Bank for another 125 years.“We all have full-time jobs, some of us have kids,” said Marilyn Oberdorf, a 36-year-old Red Bank resident and four-year member. “But we still find time to give back to this organization and this community because it gives to us.”This article was first published in the Jan. 18-25, 2018 print edition of The Two River Times.
HARD ACES: Although winless since taking last year’s Grade I Gold Cup at Santa Anita, this John Sadler trainee was second in the Big ‘Cap two starts back on March 12, earning a 101 Beyer Speed figure. He comes off an even seventh place finish in the Grade II, 1 1/8 miles Charles Town Classic on April 23 and will hope for a hot pace in the Californian. A 6-year-old horse by Hard Spun, he’s owned by Hronis Racing, LLC. With one win from seven starts at 1 1/8 miles, Hard Aces closed ground to finish third in last year’s Californian, one start prior to his Gold Cup triumph. He’s 30-6-4-7 overall with earnings of $839,645. FOLLOW ME CREV: Trained by Vladimir Cerin, “Crev” was forced off the Big ‘Cap trail due a minor ailment following a rousing 2 ½ length allowance score going 1 1/16 miles here on Feb. 14. Claimed for $50,000 on May 31, 2015, this 4-year-old Quality Road gelding will be making his 10th start for Cerin in the Californian, which is his second graded stakes assignment. Although he was last after the first half mile in his Feb. 14 win, he has shown ample speed in the past and could lay closer as a fresh commodity on Sunday. He’ll be ridden by Alonso Quinonez, who has guided him to a pair of wins. POINT PIPER: Third in the Grade II Oaklawn Handicap going 1 1/8 miles on April 16, this 6-year-old horse by Giant’s Causeway was fifth in the Grade I Big ‘Cap two starts back and was a close third in the Grade III, 1 1/16 miles Mineshaft Handicap in New Orleans on Feb. 20. Last early at Oaklawn, he laid close to the early pace in the Mineshaft and depending upon the pace scenario, could be well off the pace or mid-pack on Sunday. Owned by Gatto Racing, LLC, Russo, Schlaich and partners, Point Piper earned his best career Beyer number (102) when he was a close second to reigning Santa Anita Derby winner Dortmund, in the one mile Big Bear Stakes here on Oct. 24. Winless in his last seven tries, Point Piper is 22-4-5-4 overall with earnings of $267,135. CALIFORNIAN SERVES AS FINAL STEPPINGSTONE TO GRADE I GOLD CUP AT SANTA ANITA JUNE 25 ARCADIA, Calif. (May 19, 2016)–Considered a major contender for the Grade I Santa Anita Handicap last winter, David and Holly Wilson’s Follow Me Crev, who has been idle since Feb. 14, seeks his fifth consecutive win in Sunday’s Grade II, $200,000 Californian Stakes, final major steppingstone to the Grade I Gold Cup at Santa Anita on June 25. The Californian, for 3-year-olds and up, attracted a field of seven, including last year’s Gold Cup winner, Hard Aces and Jerry Hollendorfer’s well-traveled Point Piper. THE GRADE II CALIFORNIAN IN POST POSITION ORDER WITH JOCKEYS & WEIGHTSRace 9 (of 10) Approximate post time, 6 p.m. Crittenden–Flavien Prat–120Lieutenant Colonel–Rafael Bejarano–120Second Summer–Mario Gutierrez–120Point Piper–Martin Garcia–120El Huerfano–Victor Espinoza–120Follow Me Crev–Alonso Quinonez–120Hard Aces–Abel Lezcano–122First post time on Sunday is at 2 p.m. Admission gates open at 11 a.m. For scratches, late changes and complete morning line information, please visit santaanita.com.
Davies is among dozens of PNP supporters so far, who have filed into the party’s Old Hope Road offices, anxiously awaiting the results of the elections. “It would seem to me that there is a strange disjuncture between the level of expenditure (on campaigning), and the ability to invite participation,” Davies said. The voter turnout in today’s election is expected to be lower than the previous lowest of 53 per cent recorded in the last election. Davies said the media should share the blame for the low voter turnout, arguing that too much focus is given to persons, who do not participate in the electoral process. The PNP won the last general election, 42 seats to the JLP’s 21 in the 63-seat House of Representatives. “I am quite confident that we will retain office,” Davies said. Dr Omar Davies, the People’s National Party (PNP) standard-bearer for South St Andrew, has expressed concerns about the low turnout for the general election. “That is something that we have to deal with. It is not the PNP’s problem, it is a national problem,” Davies said.
Padraig Mac LochlainnA call has been made for the NRA to address the road safety issues at Magherabeg School without delay.It follows a number of crashes and several near misses at the school near Manorcunningham.Deputy Mac Lochlainn said “Magherabeg NS is a fantastic school, providing a top class educational service but its proximity to the N13 is a huge cause of concern for parents and teachers.“The fast moving traffic makes it extremely difficult for vehicles to drive in or out of the school. The worry of an accident has been further compounded by serious recent accidents on the road. “My colleague, Cllr Jack Murray, has requested that engineers from the NRA meet with Inishowen Councillors and local council engineers in order to develop a solution to this problem.“This must be addressed without delay. We cannot allow this problem to continue. It is much to dangerous to be put on the long finger.”CALLS MADE FOR NRA TO ADDRESS SAFETY AT LOCAL SCHOOL was last modified: February 15th, 2016 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:donegalMagherabeg National Schoolroad safety
AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MORE11 theater productions to see in Southern California this week, Dec. 27-Jan. 2“We knew exactly where he was and we chose the right moment,” North told The Associated Press. The military declined to say whether forces on the ground helped direct the bombs. Al-Zarqawi died with five others, including a woman, a child and the man who unwittingly led the Americans to him – his deputy and spiritual adviser, Abu Abdul-Rahman al-Iraqi, according to U.S. officials. Al-Iraqi was the key to pinpointing the fugitive, U.S. military spokesman Maj. Gen. William Caldwell said. Intelligence officials identified al-Iraqi with the help of an insider in al-Zarqawi’s network and began tracking his movements, waiting for him to meet with his boss, Caldwell said. BAGHDAD, Iraq – U.S. and Iraqi forces zeroed in on Abu Musab al-Zarqawi over two weeks, finally tracking his spiritual adviser to the terrorist leader’s doorstep and unleashing the airstrike that killed them both, U.S. and Iraqi officials said Thursday. The success came after several near misses in the three-year pursuit of Iraq’s most wanted militant. Iraqi forces last year reportedly captured al-Zarqawi, then let him go, not realizing it was him. And just last month, al-Zarqawi was said to have leaped from a moving truck to elude U.S. special forces on his tail, an escape filmed by a Predator reconnaissance craft. And another airstrike earlier in the final two-week hunt also missed him, the officials said. The chase ended Wednesday evening when two 500-pound bombs flattened a modest two-story house surrounded by palm groves and orange orchards outside Baqouba, northeast of Baghdad. A pair of U.S. F-16s on patrol over Iraq were called away for the attack and one of them fired a laser-guided GBU-12 and a satellite-guided GBU-38, said Air Force Lt. Gen. Gary L. North, who commands U.S. and coalition air operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. “Last night, he made a linkup \ again at 6:15 \, at which time a decision was made to go ahead and strike that target and eliminate both of them,” Caldwell told reporters in Baghdad. On Thursday, al-Zarqawi’s al-Qaida in Iraq group issued a Web statement confirming his death. It was signed by Abu Abdul-Rahman al-Iraqi, perhaps to spread confusion over whether he was really killed. But Caldwell and the top U.S. commander in Iraq, Gen. George Casey, told reporters that al-Iraqi was among the dead. North said a DNA test would confirm the identity in days. Raids by Iraqi and U.S. units on insurgent strongholds southwest of Baghdad in the past six weeks also uncovered evidence of al-Zarqawi’s whereabouts, said Col. Todd Ebel, commander of 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 101st Airborne Division. They showed he had been moving through the area to coordinate attacks in Baghdad, he said. Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki said the hunt began to close in on al-Zarqawi two weeks ago, when Iraqi intelligence received reports on his movements. He said information from Iraqis living in the Baqouba area helped in the search, and in Washington, White House Press Secretary Tony Snow implied that al-Zarqawi had severely alienated the populace in recent days. “Zarqawi moves into Baqouba, into an area called Hibhib. And what happens? Over the weekend, they found nine heads in a box. They beheaded people and left the heads in a box. They hijack a bus full of students and they slaughter the students. “That’s what Zarqawi brought to Baqouba.” There was one near miss during that time: “An operation was carried out striking a particular target in the belief that he was present there, but it turned out he had left,” al-Maliki said, without elaboration. Wednesday’s airstrike ended a hunt that involved hundreds of soldiers, spies, tipsters and intelligence analysts and cost more than $500 million, said Ed O’Connell, a retired Air Force intelligence officer who led manhunts for Osama bin Laden and top insurgents in Afghanistan, Iraq and Yemen. U.S. troops chasing al-Zarqawi included Special Operations Task Force 145, operating out of Balad air base north of Baghdad, O’Connell said by telephone from Washington. What may have changed the Americans’ luck was U.S. Ambassador Zalmay Khalilzad’s efforts to mend relations with Iraq’s minority Sunni Arabs, alienated by the U.S. invasion and by the new Shiite-dominated government. “Khalilzad shaped the environment so they could open lines of infiltration,” O’Connell said. At the same time, the Jordanian-born al-Zarqawi, stung by U.S. efforts to deride him as a foreigner killing Iraqis, began cozying up to Sunni insurgents. That was probably his undoing, since Khalilizad was doing the same thing, O’Connell said. “Once that happened, all we needed was a guy inside the insurgency to tell us where he was and, bam, we got him,” he said. U.S. special forces had been closing in. Last month, they were chasing al-Zarqawi, who jumped from a moving truck and fled in another vehicle, O’Connell said. The closest call may have come in late 2004. Deputy Interior Ministry Maj. Gen. Hussein Kamal said Iraqi security forces caught al-Zarqawi near the insurgent stronghold of Fallujah but released him, not realizing his true identity. In May 2005, Web statements by al-Qaida in Iraq said al-Zarqawi was wounded fighting with the Americans and was being treated in a hospital abroad. But days later, a statement said he was fine and back in Iraq. The reports he had been wounded were never independently confirmed. U.S. forces believe they just missed capturing al-Zarqawi in a Feb. 20, 2005, raid in which troops closed in on his vehicle west of Baghdad near the Euphrates River. His driver and another associate were captured and al-Zarqawi’s computer was seized along with pistols and ammunition. American forces twice launched moved against Fallujah, the stronghold used by al-Qaida in Iraq fighters and other insurgents west of Baghdad. An April 2004 offensive was aborted, leaving the city in insurgent hands, but the November 2004 assault wrested it from them. However, al-Zarqawi – if he was in the city – escaped. After Wednesday’s airstrike, U.S. officials were eager to prove they got their man, displaying a photo of his face at a Baghdad news conference. Fingerprints, tattoos and scars all helped confirm the identity. “The strike last night did not occur over a 24-hour period,” Caldwell said. “It was a truly long, painstaking, deliberate exploitation of intelligence, information-gathering, human sources, electronic and signals intelligence.”160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!
Residents in Kinnego are angryANGRY residents along one of Donegal’s most spectacular strips of coastline say part of the Wild Atlantic Way will be “ruined” if plans for massive turbines go ahead.Two turbines have been given the go-ahead overlooking Kinnego Bay in Inishowen, the site of a Spanish Armada landing.Local people fear more turbines could follow. Donegal County Council has vigorously opposed the turbine plans – but they have been given the go-ahead by An Bord Pleanala. Council officials complained the turbines would ruin the vista along the Wild Atlantic Way.Having been given planning permission, Derry man Declan Clarke wants to increase the height of the turbines to 132 metres.Opposing the plans a council official wrote that it was council policy “not to permit development proposals which would detract from the visual quality/amenity on either the approach roads to, or views to be had from significant tourist attractions.”“This is one of the most beautiful parts of the Wild Atlantic Way,” said residents’ spokesman David Simpson. “It is a national scandal that turbines will now overlook not just Kinnego but the beautiful Long Glen on the approach road to it.“I can’t believe that anyone visiting our lovely wee part of Donegal would want to see these monstrosities,” he said.Mr Clarke said in his submission during the planning process: “It is not considered that the purpose of the Wild Atlantic Way is to sterilise all lands from future development along the western coastline of Ireland from Donegal to Cork and all places in between.”Mr Simpson praised the council for opposing the plans.“They took a stand and unfortunately lost,” he said. “If these turbines go ahead, there is nothing to stop them appearing along the rest of the route being taken by tourists. It’s incredible.”ANGER GROWS AT WIND FARM OVER HISTORIC DONEGAL BAY was last modified: June 2nd, 2014 by John2Share this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:donegalInishowenkinnego bayWild Atlantic Waywind turbine
The apparent possibility of managerial jobs becoming available at QPR and Southampton could be a barrier to Blackburn capturing Harry Redknapp, according to The Sun.The former Saints boss has been linked with a return to St Mary’s and touted as a replacement for Mark Hughes at Rangers.Redknapp is apparently due to hold talks with Blackburn today, but there are doubts over whether there is a serious chance of him taking over at Ewood Park.The Sun also say Chelsea players have given sworn statements claiming John Obi Mikel was racially abused by referee Mark Clattenburg.It is claimed those players are prepared to give evidence to the FA inquiry set up to investigate the accusations against Clattenburg.Chelsea have accused him of using ‘inappropriate language’ to two of their players.Nigeria international Mikel is reported to be convinced he was racially insulted by Clattenburg.It has also been suggested that the official made an insulting comment towards the Blues’ Spanish playmaker Juan Mata.The Daily Star, on the other hand, suggest Mikel did not hear the alleged comments but two of his team-mates – Ramires and David Luiz – believe they heard a racial slur.Clattenburg is said to be adamant that he did nothing wrong and is ready to defend himself, the Daily Telegraph report.He has said he will co-operate with any inquiry, while the referees’ trade union Prospect has pledged to give him their full support.This page is regularly updated.Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
Shakhtar Donetsk boss Mircea Lucescu insists his side are capable of beating Chelsea at Stamford Bridge tonight.The Ukrainian club have performed well against English sides in recent years and beat the Blues in their Champions League clash a fortnight ago.And Lucescu believes they can also see off the European champions on their own patch.He said: “Shakhtar have beaten Tottenham, Fulham, Arsenal and Chelsea.“My players know very well that absolutely all the teams in the Champions League can be beaten, even Chelsea at home.”Click here for the Chelsea v Shakhtar quizSee also:Cole out as Chelsea wait on Mata and LuizDi Matteo tips Bertrand to shineBoss wants ‘perfect game’ from ChelseaIvanovic: Our defending has to improve 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 Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
The town of Sharpeville will forever be entrenched in South Africa’s rich history. (Image: If I Could Blog)South Africa’s Human Rights Day, 21 March – declared International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination by the UN – is synonymous with the historic township Sharpeville, situated between the industrial cities of Vanderbijlpark and Vereeniging about 50 kilometres south of Johannesburg.The day, sometimes also called Heroes’ Day, was a watershed in the country’s liberation struggle, hence its inclusion in South Africa’s post-apartheid calendar. Yet more than 55 years on, the question still surfaces: what exactly happened that morning?“With hindsight, the story is simple,” Journalist Joe Tlholoe, who was a high school pupil at the time, wrote years later. “The PAC, which was 16 days short of its first birthday, had called on African men to leave their pass books at home, go to the nearest police station and demand to be arrested for not carrying the dompas.”The apartheid pass laws humiliated African men in particular. Every indigenous African male above the age of 16 had to carry his dompas day and night and produce it on demand by the police. Failure to produce your pass or forgetting it at home, or not having the right stamp, meant arrest and jail.“When the police in Sharpeville saw the masses marching towards them, they panicked and opened fire, killing the 69 and injuring hundreds,” Tlholoe wrote. “The country went up in flames as anger spread through townships across the country. More were killed in the days after Sharpeville.”The timeline shows how it came to be such an important day in South Africa’s history:A group, to become known as the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC), breaks away from the African National Congress (ANC) on 2 November 1958;The PAC holds its inaugural congress at Soweto’s Orlando Communal Hall between 6 and 8 April 1959;Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe, a 34-year-old lecturer in African languages at Wits University at the time, opens the congress and is elected president;In his first speech, he outlines the PAC’s policies and paints a picture of a South Africa after liberation that is non-racial, democratic and socialist;In July 1959, Sobukwe announces that the PAC will embark on a programme of “positive action” against oppression;In December 1959, he announces that the first target will be the pass laws;Sobukwe leads a march to Orlando Police Station in March 1960, where he and the party’s leadership are arrested, just after they learned of the massacre in Sharpeville;The journey to the recognition of basic human rights, now entrenched in the Bill of Rights in South Africa’s post-1994 Constitution, has begun in earnest.This is the timeline of the aftermath of the massacre:On 30 March 1960, following the declaration of a state of emergency, thousands of black people are arrested throughout the country;On 8 April 1960, the National Party (NP) government, under the leadership of apartheid architect Hendrik Verwoerd, bans the PAC and ANC, forcing the two movements to go underground and eventually into exile;The days of peaceful protest are over;In December 1961, the ANC’s armed wing, Umkhonto weSizwe, detonates its first bombs;Sobukwe, first sentenced to three years’ imprisonment on Robben Island for leading the anti-pass law protests, is kept in jail indefinitely under a special amendment to the General Laws Amendment Act – the Sobukwe Clause – which is rushed through Parliament;Released from Robben Island and banished to Kimberley in 1968, Sobukwe is already ill, and dies from cancer 10 years later, but the march for human rights and dignity continues;In 1986, under heavy pressure, rightist president PW Botha repeals the pass and influx control laws which curtailed the movement of blacks in their country of birth.On 8 May 1996, the ANC-led government choses Sharpeville as the venue to launch South Africa’s new Constitution, signed by its first democratically elected president, Nelson Mandela.